Forms of speech are either simple or composite. Examples of the latter
are such expressions as ‘the man runs’, ‘the man wins’; of the former
‘man’, ‘ox’, ‘runs’, ‘wins’.
Of things themselves some are predicable of a subject, and are never
present in a subject. Thus ‘man’ is predicable of the individual man,
and is never present in a subject.
By being ‘present in a subject’ I do not mean present as parts are
present in a whole, but being incapable of existence apart from the
Some things, again, are present in a subject, but are never predicable
of a subject. For instance, a certain point of grammatical knowledge is
present in the mind, but is not predicable of any subject; or again, a
certain whiteness may be present in the body (for colour requires a
material basis), yet it is never predicable of anything.
Other things, again, are both predicable of a subject and present in a
subject. Thus while knowledge is present in the human mind, it is
predicable of grammar.
There is, lastly, a class of things which are neither present in a
subject nor predicable of a subject, such as the individual man or the
individual horse. But, to speak more generally, that which is
individual and has the character of a unit is never predicable of a
subject. Yet in some cases there is nothing to prevent such being
present in a subject. Thus a certain point of grammatical knowledge is
present in a subject.